St Mary's Catholic Primary Academy


Key Stage 1 Art and Design

National Curriculum England 2014 - NAHT Assessment Framework

Year 1

  • To use a range of materials creatively to design and make products
  • To use drawing, painting and sculpture to develop and share their ideas, experiences and imagination
  • To develop a wide range of art and design techniques in using colour, pattern, texture, line, shape, form and space
  • Respond to a stimuli through the use of colour, texture and shape.
  • Express views about their own and others’ work.
  • Adapt and improve their own work using both individual and peer critique.

Year 2

  • To use drawing, painting and sculpture to develop and share their ideas, experiences and imagination
  • To develop a wide range of art and design techniques in using colour, pattern, texture, line, shape, form and space
  • Investigate and use a variety of materials and techniques.
  • Investigate and use a variety of materials and techniques.
  • Adapt and improve their own work using individual and peer critique.

Key Stage 1 Computing

NAACE Computing

Computer science

Year 1
  • Understand what algorithms are.
  • Create and debug simple programs.
Year 2
  • Understand that technologies execute programs by following precise and unambiguous instructions.
  • Create and debug simple programs.
  • Use logical reasoning to predict the behaviour of simple programs.

Digital literacy

Year 1
  • Use technology purposefully to create different types of digital content.
  • Know that there are different ways and places to share content.
Year 2
  • Use technology purposefully to create digital content by combining different digital media to communicate ideas
  • Use technology purposefully to refine digital content for a specific audience.
  • Choose an appropriate way to share digital content for a specific audience.
  • Interpret and draw conclusions from graphs, discuss information contained and answer simple questions.
  • Send, open and reply to an email from a known person, developing awareness of appropriate language.
  • Contribute to a blog, journal or forum.

Esafety

Year 1
  • Keep personal information private.
  • Know where to go for help
Year 2
  • Understand that technologies can be used to communicate in a variety of ways and, to stay safe, they need to used respectfully and safely.
  • Know where to go for help to stay safe.

Information technology

Year 1
  • Be able to recognise and discuss common uses of technology beyond school
  • Explore simulations of real and virtual environments
Year 2
  • Use technology purposefully to create, organise, store, manipulate and retrieve digital content
  • Understand that technologies execute programs following an instruction from the user
  • Identify different ways technologies in and beyond school receive instructions that cause them to execute their programs
  • Explore simulations of real and virtual environments, identifying the rules that underpin them
  • Independently save and retrieve work
  • Use a simple search engine to find information

Key Stage 1 Geography

Geography Association

Geographical skills and fieldwork

Year 1
  • Use world maps, atlases and globes to identify the United Kingdom and its countries, as well as, the world’s continents and oceans.
  • Use aerial photographs and plan perspectives to recognise human and physical features of a locality.
  • Construct a simple map; and use and construct basic symbols in a key.
Year 2
  • Use simple compass directions (North, South, East and West) and locations and directional language [for example, near and far; left and right], to describe the location of features and routes on a map.
  • Use world maps, atlases and globes to locate the United Kingdom and its countries, as well as the world’s continents and oceans.

Human and physical geography

Year 1
  • Recognise a physical environment and describe it.
  • Recognise a human environment and describe it.
Year 2
  • Recognise a physical environment and describe it using key vocabulary.
  • Recognise a human environment and describe it using key vocabulary.
  • Identify seasonal and daily weather patterns in the United Kingdom.
  • Locate hot and cold areas of the world in relation to the Equator and the North and South Poles

Locational knowledge

Year 1
  • Name and locate the world’s seven continents and five oceans.
  • Name and locate the four countries and capital cities of the United Kingdom and its surrounding seas.
Year 2
  • Name, locate and identify characteristics of the four countries and capital cities of the United Kingdom and its surrounding seas.

Place knowledge

Year 1
  • Name and locate a small area of the United Kingdom, and a small area in a contrasting non-European country.
  • Describe the geography of the school and its grounds, along with the key human and physical features of its surrounding area.
Year 2
  • List and describe geographical similarities and differences through studying the human and physical geography of a small area of the United Kingdom, and of a small area in a contrasting non-European country.

Key Stage 1 History

National Curriculum England 2014 - NAHT Assessment Framework

Year 1

  • Changes within living memory – where appropriate, these should be used to reveal aspects of change in national life
  • Events beyond living memory that are significant nationally or globally [for example, the Great Fire of London, the first aeroplane flight or events commemorated through festivals or anniversaries]
  • The lives of significant individuals in the past who have contributed to national and international achievements, some should be used to compare aspects of life in different periods [for example, Elizabeth I and Queen Victoria, Christopher Columbus and Neil Armstrong, William Caxton and Tim Berners-Lee, Pieter Bruegel the Elder and LS Lowry, Rosa Parks and Emily Davison, Mary Seacole and/or Florence Nightingale and Edith Cavell]
  • Significant historical events, people and places in their own locality
  • Place events and objects in chronological order.
  • Use sources of information to find out about the past.

Year 2

  • Changes within living memory – where appropriate, these should be used to reveal aspects of change in national life
  • Events beyond living memory that are significant nationally or globally [for example, the Great Fire of London, the first aeroplane flight or events commemorated through festivals or anniversaries]
  • The lives of significant individuals in the past who have contributed to national and international achievements, some should be used to compare aspects of life in different periods [for example, Elizabeth I and Queen Victoria, Christopher Columbus and Neil Armstrong, William Caxton and Tim Berners-Lee, Pieter Bruegel the Elder and LS Lowry, Rosa Parks and Emily Davison, Mary Seacole and/or Florence Nightingale and Edith Cavell]
  • Significant historical events, people and places in their own locality
  • Recognise why people did things and why events happened.
  • Ask and answer questions about the past.
  • Select from a knowledge of history and communicate it in a variety of ways.

Key Stage 1 Mathematics

National Curriculum England 2014 - NAHT Assessment Framework

Geometry - position and direction

Year 2
  • EXS: Uses mathematical vocabulary to describe position, direction and movement, including movement in a straight line and distinguishing between rotation as a turn and in terms of right angles for quarter, half and three-quarter turns (clockwise and anti-clockwise)

Geometry - properties of shapes

Year 1
  • EXS: Recognises and names common 2-D shapes, including: 2-D shapes e.g. rectangles (including squares), circles and triangles in everyday contexts.
Year 2
  • EXS: Compares and sorts common 2-D and 3-D shapes and everyday objects

Measurement

Year 1
  • EXS: Compare, describe and solve practical problems for: Heights e.g. tall/short.
    • EXS: Lengths e.g. long/short, longer/shorter.
    • EXS: Mass/weight e.g. heavy/light, heavier than, lighter than
    • EXS: Capacity and volume e.g. full/empty, more than, less than, half, half full, quarter
    • EXS: Time e.g. quicker, slower, earlier, later
  • EXS: Tells the time to the hour and half past the hour and draw the hands on a clock face to show these times
Year 2
  • EXS: Solves simple problems in a practical context involving addition and subtraction of money of the same unit, including giving change

Number - addition and subtraction

Year 1
  • EXS: Represent and use number bonds and related subtraction facts within 20
Year 2
  • Solves problems with addition and subtraction by:
    • Using concrete objects and pictorial representations, including those involving numbers, quantities and measures
    • Applying their increasing knowledge of mental and written methods
  • EXS: Recalls and uses addition and subtraction facts to 20 and 100:
    • EXS: Fluently up to 20.

Number - fractions

Year 1
  • WTS: Begins to Recognise, find and name a half as one of two equal parts of an object or shape.
Year 2
  • EXS: Recognises, find, name and write fractions ⅓, ¼,2/4and ¾ of a length, shape, set of objects or quantity

Number - multiplication and division

Year 2
  • EXS: Recalls and use multiplication and division facts for the two, five and 10 multiplication tables, including recognising odd and even numbers. (E.G. knowing they can make 7 groups of 5 from 35 blocks. Sharing 40 cherries between 10 people, stating the total value of 6 5p coins)
  • EXS: Solves problems involving multiplication and division, using materials, arrays, repeated addition, mental methods, and multiplication and division facts, including problems in contexts

Number - number and place value

Year 1
  • EXS: Count to and across 100, forwards beginning with 0 or 1, or from any given number
  • EXS: Read and write numbers to 100 in numerals.
  • WTS: Given a number, identifies 1 more.
Year 2
  • WTS: Count in steps of two, three, and five from 0, and in 10s from any number, forward and backward
  • EXS: Compares and orders numbers from 0 up to 100
  • EXS: Uses < > and = signs correctly
  • EXS: Uses place value and number facts to solve problems

Statistics

Year 2
  • EXS: Asks and answers questions about totalling and comparing categorical data

Key Stage 1 Physical Education

National Curriculum England 2014 - NAHT Assessment Framework

Year 1

  • Master basic movements including running, jumping, throwing and catching, as well as developing balance, agility and co-ordination, and begin to apply these in a range of activities
  • Perform dances using simple movement patterns

Year 2

  • Master basic movements including running, jumping, throwing and catching, as well as developing balance, agility and co-ordination, and begin to apply these in a range of activities
  • Participate in team games, developing simple tactics for attacking and defending
  • Perform dances using simple movement patterns

Key Stage 1 Reading

National Curriculum England 2014 - NAHT Assessment Framework

Comprehension

Year 1
  • Listening to and discussing a wide range of poems at a level beyond that at which they can read independently.
    • Listening to and discussing a wide range of stories at a level beyond that at which they can read independently.
    • Be able to retell very familiar with key stories, fairy stories and traditional tales.
  • Understands both the books they can already read accurately and fluently and those they listen to by:
    • Checking that the text makes sense to them as they read
    • As they read, correcting inaccurate reading
    • Discussing the significance of the title and events
    • Predicting what might happen on the basis of what has been read so far
Year 2
  • Listening to, discussing and expressing views about a wide range of contemporary and classic poetry, stories and non-fiction at a level beyond that at which they can read independently
    • Discussing the sequence of events in books and how items of information are related
    • Becoming increasingly familiar with a wider range of stories, fairy stories and traditional tales
    • Retelling a range of stories, fairy stories and traditional tales
    • Being introduced to non-fiction books that are structured in different ways
  • Relating personal experiences to stories read.
    • Asking questions.
    • Predicting what might happen on the basis of what has been read so far
  • Participates in discussion about books, poems and other works that are read to them and those that they can read for themselves, taking turns and listening to what others say

Word reading

Year 1
  • Responds speedily with the correct sound to graphemes (letters or groups of letters) for all 40+ phonemes, including, where applicable, alternative sounds for graphemes
  • Reads accurately by blending sounds in unfamiliar words
  • Reads common exception words
  • Reads aloud accurately books that are consistent with their developing phonic knowledge and that do not require them to use other strategies to work out words
Year 2
  • Reads accurately by blending the sounds in words that contain the graphemes taught so far, especially recognising alternative sounds for graphemes
  • Reads accurately words of two or more syllables that contain the same graphemes as above
  • Reads most words at an instructional level 93-95 per cent quickly and accurately without overt sounding and blending, when they have been frequently encountered
  • Reads aloud books closely matched to their improving phonic knowledge, sounding out unfamiliar words accurately, automatically and without undue hesitation
  • Re-reads these books to build up their fluency and confidence in word reading

Key Stage 1 Science

National Curriculum England 2014 - NAHT Assessment Framework

Animals, including humans

Year 1
  • Identify and name a variety of common animals including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals
  • Identify and name a variety of common animals that are carnivores, herbivores and omnivores
  • Describe and compare the structure of a variety of common animals (fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals including pets)
  • Identify, name, draw and label the basic parts of the human body and say which part of the body is associated with each sense
Year 2
  • Notice that animals, including humans, have offspring which grow into adults
  • Find out about and describe the basic needs of animals, including humans, for survival (water, food and air)
  • Describe the importance for humans of exercise, eating the right amounts of different types of food, and hygiene

Everyday materials

Year 1
  • Distinguish between an object and the material from which it is made
  • Identify and name a variety of everyday materials, including wood, plastic, glass, metal, water, and rock
  • Describe the simple physical properties of a variety of everyday materials
  • Compare and group together a variety of everyday materials on the basis of their simple physical properties

Living things and their habitats

Year 2
  • Explore and compare the differences between things that are living, dead, and things that have never been alive
  • Identify that most living things live in habitats to which they are suited and describe how different habitats provide for the basic needs of different kinds of animals and plants, and how they depend on each other
  • Identify and name a variety of plants and animals in their habitats, including microhabitats
  • Describe how animals obtain their food from plants and other animals, using the idea of a simple food chain, and identify and name different sources of food

Plants

Year 1
  • Identify and name a variety of common wild and garden plants, including deciduous and evergreen trees
  • Identify and describe the basic structure of a variety of common flowering plants, including trees
Year 2
  • Observe and describe how seeds and bulbs grow into mature plants
  • Find out and describe how plants need water, light and a suitable temperature to grow and stay healthy

Seasonal changes

Year 1
  • Observe changes across the 4 seasons
  • Observe and describe weather associated with the seasons and how day length varies

Uses of everyday materials

Year 2
  • Identify and compare the suitability of a variety of everyday materials, including wood, metal, plastic, glass, brick, rock, paper and cardboard for particular uses
  • Find out how the shapes of solid objects made from some materials can be changed by squashing, bending, twisting and stretching

Working scientifically

Year 1
  • Asking simple questions and recognising that they can be answered in different ways
  • Observing closely, using simple equipment
  • Performing simple tests
Year 2
  • Identifying and classifying
  • Using their observations and ideas to suggest answers to questions
  • Gathering and recording data to help in answering questions

Key Stage 1 Writing

National Curriculum England 2014 - NAHT Assessment Framework

Composition

Year 1
  • Write sentences by:
    • EXS: Sequencing sentences to form short narratives.
    • EXS: Re-reading what they have written to check that it makes sense.
Year 2
  • GDS: Writing effectively and coherently for different purposes, drawing on their reading to inform vocabulary and grammar choices.
  • WTS: Orally compose a sentence before writing

Handwriting

Year 1
  • WTS: Begins to form lower-case letters in the correct direction, starting and finishing in the right place.
Year 2
  • EXS: Writes capital letters and digits of the correct size, orientation and relationship to one another and to lower-case letters.

Transcription - Spelling

Year 1
  • EXS: Spells words containing each of the 40+ phonemes already taught
  • EXS: the letters of the alphabet in order.
  • EXS: Writes from memory simple sentences dictated by the teacher that include words using the GPCs and common exception words taught so far.

Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation

Year 1
  • EXS: Introduces capital letter and full stops to demarcate sentences.
Year 2
  • EXS: Uses capital letters, full stops, question marks and exclamation marks to demarcate sentences
  • GDS: Use commas to separate items in a list.
  • EXS: Uses the correct choice and consistent use of present tense and past tense mostly correctly throughout a written piece.
  • EXS: Constructs subordination (using when, if, that, because).
  • EXS: Uses the suffixes –er, –est in adjectives and –ly to turn adjectives into adverbs

Key Stage 2 Art and Design

National Curriculum England 2014 - NAHT Assessment Framework

Year 3

  • About great artists, architects and designers in history - Monet and Matisse
  • Investigate and create textures for different purposes.
  • Comment on similarities and differences between their own work and others work.
  • Adapt and improve their own work through both individual and peer critique.

Year 4

  • About great artists, architects and designers in history - Lowrey and Da Vinci
  • Use their knowledge and understanding to select materials and techniques to communicate ideas and meanings in their work.
  • Compare and comment on ideas, methods and approaches used in their own and others’ work, beginning to relate these to the context in which the work was made.
  • Adapt and improve their own and others’ work, beginning to realise intentions.

Year 5

  • About great artists, architects and designers in history - Andy Warhole
  • Use their knowledge and understanding to select materials and techniques to communicate ideas and meanings in their work.
  • Compare and comment on ideas, methods and approaches used in their own and others’ work, beginning to relate these to the context in which the work was made.
  • Adapt and improve their own and others’ work, beginning to realise intentions.

Year 6

  • About great artists, architects and designers in history - Cubism and Futurism, Picasso
  • Explore ideas and select visual and other information to develop their work, taking account of the purpose
  • Combine and organise visual and tactile qualities to suit intentions, manipulating materials and techniques.
  • Analyse and comment on ideas and methods and refine their work to reflect their own view of its purpose.

Key Stage 2 Computing

NAACE Computing

Computer science

Year 3
  • Use sequence, selection, and repetition in programs.
  • Use logical reasoning to explain how some simple algorithms work and to detect and correct errors in algorithms and programs
  • Use only sequences of instructions to write programs to accomplish specific goals
Year 4
  • Use repetition to draw simple specific geometrical shapes
  • Use logical reasoning to detect and correct errors in making shapes
  • Work with various forms of output when controlling or simulating a simple physical system involving output only through lights, sounds or movement
Year 5
  • Create and refine sequences of commands using logo type programming, including the use of procedures e.g. to construct, and investigate, geometric patterns and problems
  • Create and refine sequences of commands to control both a single input and outputs e.g. lighting sequences, buzzers and motors (this could include screen simulation or real devices)
  • Improve a program to make it more efficient by using repetition or sub-routines
Year 6
  • Plan, create, modify and refine control sequences which use inputs and outputs, using selection and decision commands to control events taking account of purpose and needs
  • Devise, test and refine more effective control sequences incorporating procedures and sub-routines, taking account of purpose and needs
  • Use a blocks type language to program a solution to a problem
  • Compare these approaches to other forms of programming, e.g. logo or creating an app for a mobile phone or tablet

Digital literacy

Year 3
  • Begin to design and plan digital content using a variety of applications and technologies e.g. storyboard for animation or video
  • Locate, acquire, store and retrieve images and sounds from various locations for a specific purpose
  • Select software to use editing tools to refine and improve outcomes and performances
  • Use more than one data-handling application to process and present data in a variety of formats to answer questions
  • Log on to an email account, forward an email where appropriate to do so
  • Select an email recipient from an address book
Year 4
  • Understand the opportunities networks, including the internet, offer for communication
  • Use a range of digital tools to communicate, making purposeful contributions to respond to another pupil’s question or comment
  • Select and prepare images, sounds, videos and tables for use in multimedia presentations
  • Select software to create a non-linear presentation
  • Use a variety of additional editing tools e.g. repeating, resizing images; add titles, credits and special effects as appropriate to the audience, purpose and medium
  • Evaluate the quality of their own and others’ work
  • Understand how computer networks can be used for collaboration by saving an email in draft format and then return and edit prior to sending
  • Open and save attachments to an appropriate place; know when it is (un)safe to do so
Year 5
  • Use software to format and edit work to improve clarity and purpose using a range of tools e.g. cut and paste, justify, tabs, insert and replace
  • Use a variety of layouts, formatting, sounds, graphics and illustrations, transitions, video and animations to create outcomes for different purposes or audiences
  • Recognise intended audience needs and suggest improvements to make their work more relevant to that audience
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of a variety of digital communication tools
  • Choose appropriate tools and techniques for a given task, being able to justify and evaluate their choices
  • Understand how computer networks can be used for collaboration by publishing their work to a wider audience e.g. ‘News’, ‘Blogs’ or ‘Discussions’
  • Use email efficiently, e.g. add email addresses group or distribution lists of contacts to an address book
Year 6
  • Use software to design and create documents/presentations with a clear sense of identity and style appropriate the subject matter and the audience
  • Devise and create a structured multimedia presentation for a specific audience and outcome, refining the work to improve the final outcome explaining choices and decisions made.
  • Use peer and self-assessment to evaluate presentations and make improvements, using tools such as comments
  • Distinguish between fact and opinion, developing skills to question where online content might originate from, using their knowledge, for example, of domain names and common website extensions
  • Develop and use criteria to critically evaluate the quality of solutions, identifying improvements and refining their work
  • Independently, and with regard for safety, select and use appropriate communication tools to solve problems by collaborating with others within and beyond school
  • When using email, learn how to use the cc and bcc facilities and discuss when these should be used
  • Send ‘group’ emails and be aware of the risks and benefits of ‘reply to all’
  • Extend online publishing to a more global audience

Esafety

Year 3
  • Know the schools preferred ways to report concerns about content and contact
  • Show an increasing awareness of keeping safe when accessing materials through online sources
  • Use technology respectfully and responsibly by recognising simple acceptable/unacceptable behaviour
  • Begin to understand about copyright and intellectual property of downloaded content
  • Be aware that information on the internet is not validated and may not be true
Year 4
  • When sourcing content from the internet, identify whether there are copyright restrictions and if can be legally downloaded and used in their own work
  • Reference sources when using downloaded or shared content
  • Use technology safely and respectfully by recognising that there are several forms of acceptable/unacceptable behaviour
Year 5
  • Define simple guidelines for safe and responsible use of communication technologies
Year 6
  • Describe a range of services offered through the internet and any potential risks associated with them, e.g. cyber bullying, and how these might be dealt with
  • Use technology responsibly for communicating and collaborating appropriately with awareness of the needs of others
  • Know how and where to report concerns out of school

Information technology

Year 3
  • Understand computer networks including the internet; how they can provide multiple services, such as the world wide web by beginning to be aware of the range of services accessible through computer networks and the internet
  • Save and retrieve work to/from their own space using folders to organise it
  • Use search technologies effectively by using child friendly search engines, to develop questions to search for specific information to answer a question
  • Use appropriate tools to save and retrieve accessed information e.g. favourites, bookmarks
  • Construct, refine and interpret different forms of graphical representations to answer questions
  • Create and use a branching database to organise and analyse information to answer questions
  • Use a flat file database to answer straightforward questions by searching, sorting and ordering the contents of a single field
  • Be aware that a range of peripheral devices, including dataloggers, can be used when connected to a computer and also remotely
Year 4
  • Begin to understand how networks and search engines work
  • Use appropriate search technologies effectively, being discerning in evaluating digital content e.g. cross-checking with different websites and books
  • Use a pre-prepared spreadsheet to record data to answer questions and produce graphs; know that these are used for different purposes
  • In pre-prepared spreadsheets change the contents of cells and explore the consequences
  • Collect data and enter it into a database under appropriate field headings
  • Raise questions and translate them into search criteria that can be used to find answers to specific questions
  • Encode/decode text messages to ASCII
  • Attach different files to emails e.g. text, audio, image
Year 5
  • From personal experience, describe some of the services computer networks offer
  • Enter formulae including ‘SUM’ into a pre-prepared spreadsheet model to explore the effects of changing variables
  • Select the appropriate representations e.g. pie charts, line graphs to display and interrogate collected data
  • Check the reliability of data; identify and correct inaccuracies
  • Consider the effectiveness of key questions on search results and refine where necessary
  • Using a large pre-prepared database, design questions and perform complex searches using key words to look for relationships and patterns
  • Design a data capture form e.g. a questionnaire or table to collect data to answer a specific question
  • Independently use a datalogger, with a range of sensors, both connected to a computer and also running remotely to collect and display environmental data
  • Encode/decode bitmapped images
  • Recognise and talk about different file types and how this might affect their use
Year 6
  • Describe a range of services offered through the internet and how they might be used for communication and collaboration
  • Using knowledge and understanding of spreadsheet modelling, develop simple spreadsheet models to investigate problems
  • Identify and enter the correct formulae into cells; make predictions of the outcome of changing a variable
  • Select and use the most appropriate method to collect, organise, present, analyse and interpret data
  • Use appropriate strategies for finding, validating, verifying and critically evaluating, information from the internet
  • Design investigations which require the use of dataloggers recognising what measurements will be needed and the most appropriate means of recording the data
  • Understand the impact of file size on digital communication

Key Stage 2 Geography

Geography Association

Geographical skills and fieldwork

Year 3
  • Use maps, atlases, aerial photographs and digital/computer mapping to locate counties, cities and regions of the UK and describe rivers, types of settlement and land use.
  • Use the eight points of a compass, four and six-figure grid references, symbols and key (including the use of Ordnance Survey maps) to build their knowledge of the United Kingdom.
  • Use fieldwork to observe, measure, record and present rivers, types of settlement and land use in the local area using a range of methods, including sketch maps, plans and graphs, and digital technologies.
Year 4
  • Use maps, atlases, aerial photographs  and digital/computer mapping to locate countries, cities and regions of Europe, comparing a region in UK with a country in Europe,  and describe climate zones, mountains, economic activity.
Year 5
  • Use maps, atlases, aerial photographs and digital/computer mapping to locate countries, cities and regions of North America, comparing a region in UK with a country in North America,  and describe volcanoes and earthquakes, and natural resources.
Year 6
  • Use maps, atlases, aerial photographs  and digital/computer mapping to locate countries, cities and regions of South America, comparing a region in UK with a country in South America.

Human and physical geography

Year 3
  • Identify human and physical characteristics of UK geographical regions.
  • Tabulate and understand the water cycle and rivers using developing geographical vocabulary.
  • Describe types of settlement and land use using developing geographical vocabulary.
Year 4
  • Describe the environmental regions, key physical and human characteristics, countries, and major cities of Europe.
  • Describe and understand climate zones and mountains, using developing geographical vocabulary.
  • Identify and understand economic activity including trade links, using developing geographical vocabulary.
  • Ask and answer questions about the UK, European countries, climate zones , mountains and economic activities.
  • Express their opinions about themes investigated and begin to understand that others may think differently.
Year 5
  • Differentiate the environmental regions, key physical and human characteristics, countries, and major cities of North America
  • Summarise and begin to explain how and why  a region in the UK and a region in a North American country are similar and different.
  • Identifyand understand volcanoes and earthquakes, using developing geographical vocabulary.
  • Explain and understand the distribution of natural resources including energy and water, using developing geographical vocabulary.
  • Describe and begin to explain how some of these aspects have changed over time.
Year 6
  • Identify the environmental regions, key physical and human characteristics, countries, and major cities of South America.
  • Describe and understand the distribution of natural resources including minerals and food, using developing geographical vocabulary.
  • Examining and understanding of biomes and vegetation belts, using developing geographical vocabulary, in a range of places.

Locational knowledge

Year 3
  • Name and locate counties, geographical regions and cities of the United Kingdom.
  • Name and locate key topographical features of the united Kingdom (including hills, mountains, coasts and rivers).
Year 4
  • Locate the world’s countries, using maps to focus on Europe (including the location of Russia).
  • Identify the position and significance of latitude, longitude, Equator, Northern Hemisphere, Southern Hemisphere, the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, Arctic and Antarctic Circle, the Prime/Greenwich Meridian and time zones (including day and night).
  • Locate some countries in Europe or North and South America on a map or atlas.
Year 5
  • Locate cities, countries and regions of North and South America on physical and political maps.
  • Name and locate key topographical features of the united Kingdom and show understanding of how these aspects have changed over time.
  • Identify land use patters in the United Kingdom and show understanding of how these aspects have changed over time.
  • Locate places studied in relation to the Equator, the Tropics, latitude and longitude and relate this to its time zone, climate, seasons and vegetation.
Year 6
  • Locate the world’s countries, using maps to focus on South America.
  • Identify environmental regions, key physical and human characteristics, countries and major cities of Europe (including Russia) North and South America.

Place knowledge

Year 4
  • Be able to relate continent, country, State, city.
  • Examine and understand some reasons for geographical similarities and differences between a region in the UK and a region in a European country.
Year 5
  • Examine and understand some reasons for geographical similarities and differences between a region in the UK and a region in a European country and a region within North or South America.
Year 6
  • Examine and understand some reasons for geographical similarities and differences between a region in the UK and a region in a European country and a region within North or South America.

Key Stage 2 History

National Curriculum England 2014 - NAHT Assessment Framework

Year 3

  • Place events, people and changes into correct periods of time.
  • Identify and describe reasons for and results of historical events, situations and changes in the period studied.
  • Use sources of information including ICT to find out about events, people and changes.
  • Communicate knowledge and understanding in a variety of ways.
    • Place events, people and changes into correct periods of timeEnter your objective text here...
    • Develop their understanding that the past can be divided into different periods of time.
      • Identify and describe reasons for and results of historical events, situations and changes in the period studied.
    • Begin to give reasons for different ways the past is represented.
    • Enter your objective text here...

Year 4

  • Develop their understanding that the past can be divided into different periods of time.
  • Begin to give reasons for different ways the past is represented.
  • Use sources of information including ICT to find out about events, people and changes.
  • Identify and describe reasons for and results of historical events, situations and changes in the period studied.

Year 5

  • Identify and describe reasons for and results of historical events, situations and changes.
  • Select and record information relevant to the focus of the enquiry.
  • Communicate their knowledge of history in a variety of ways.
  • Identify different ways in which the past is represented and interpreted.

Year 6

  • Use an increasing depth of factual knowledge to describe past societies and periods and begin to make links between them.
  • Recognise the social, cultural, religious and ethnic diversity of societies.
  • Identify and describe reasons for and results of, historical events, situations and changes in the periods and societies studied.
  • Recognise that the past is represented and interpreted in different ways, and give reasons for this.
    • Recall, select, organise and communicate historical information in a variety of ways.
    • Enter your objective text here...

Key Stage 2 Mathematics

National Curriculum England 2014 - NAHT Assessment Framework

Algebra

Year 6
  • EXS: Uses simple formulae, for example to solve area and perimeter.
  • WTS: Generate and describe linear number sequences.
  • EXS: Find pairs of numbers that satisfy an equation with 2 unknowns.

Geometry - position and direction

Year 4
  • EXS: Plots specified points and draw sides to complete a given polygon.
Year 6
  • EXS: Draws and translate simple shapes on the coordinate plane and reflect them in the axes.
  • GDS: Interprets pie charts and line graphs and uses these to solve problems.

Geometry - properties of shapes

Year 4
  • EXS: Compares and classifies geometric shapes, including quadrilaterals and triangles, based on their properties and sizes.
  • GDS:Identify lines of symmetry in two dimensional shapes presented in different orientations.
Year 5
  • EXS: Draws given angles, and measure them in degrees (°).
  • GDS: Distinguishes between regular and irregular polygons based on reasoning about equal sides and angles.
Year 6
  • EXS: Compares and classifies geometric shapes based on their properties and sizes and find unknown angles in any triangles, quadrilaterals, and regular polygons.

Measurement

Year 3
  • EXS: Measures, compare, adds and subtracts lengths (m/cm/mm); mass (kg/g); volume/capacity (l/ml)
  • WTS: Adds and subtracts amounts of money to give change, using both £ and p in practical contexts
  • EXS: Tells and writes the time from an analogue clock and 12-hour and 24-hour clocks
  • EXS: Identifies right angles, recognises that two right angles make a half-turn, three make three quarters of a turn and four a complete turn; identifies whether angles are greater than or less than a right angle
Year 4
  • EXS: Converts between different units of measure e.g. kilometre to metre; hour to minute.
Year 5
  • EXS: Converts between different units of metric measure eg kilometre and metre; centimetre and metre; centimetre and millimetre; gram and kilogram; litre and millilitre.
  • EXS:Measures and calculates the perimeter of composite rectilinear shapes in centimetres and metres.
  • GDS:Calculates and compares the area of rectangles (including squares), including using standard units, square centimetres (cm²) and square metres (m²).
Year 6
  • EXS:Uses, reads, writes and converts between standard units, converting measurements of length, mass, volume and time from a smaller unit of measure to a larger unit, and vice versa, using decimal notation to up to three decimal places.

Number - addition and subtraction

Year 3
  • Add  numbers mentally including:
    • EXS: A three-digit number and ones
    • EXS: A three-digit number and tens
    • EXS: A three-digit number and hundreds
Year 4
  • EXS: Solves addition and subtraction two-step problems in context, deciding which operations and methods to use and why.
Year 5
  • WTS: Adds and subtracts whole numbers with more than 4 digits, including using formal written methods (columnar addition and subtraction).
  • WTS: Adds and subtracts numbers mentally with increasingly large numbers (eg 12,462 - 2,300 = 10,162).

Number - addition, subtraction, multiplication and division

Year 6
  • EXS: Multiplies multi-digit numbers up to four digits by a two-digit whole number using the formal written method of long multiplication.
  • EXS: Divides numbers up to four digits by a two-digit number using the formal written method of short division where appropriate, interpreting remainders according to the .context
  • EXS: Uses estimation to check answers to calculations and determines, in the context of a problem, an appropriate degree of accuracy.

Number - fractions

Year 3
  • EXS: Counts up and down in tenths; recognise that tenths arise from dividing an object into 10 equal parts and in dividing one-digit numbers or quantities by 10
  • WTS: Recognises, find and write fractions of a discrete set of objects: unit fractions and non-unit fractions with small denominators
  • WTS: Recognises and shows, using diagrams, equivalent fractions with small denominators
Year 4
  • EXS: Recognises and shows, using diagrams, families of common equivalent fractions.
  • EXS: Counts up and down in hundredths; recognise that hundredths arise when dividing an object by 100 and dividing tenths by 10.
  • EXS:Rounds decimals with one decimal place to the nearest whole number.
  • GDS: Solves simple measure and money problems involving fractions and decimals to two decimal places.
Year 5
  • EXS: Compares and orders fractions whose denominators are all multiples of the same number.
  • Read and write decimal numbers as fractions e.g. 0.71 =71/100
  • EXS: Reads, writes, orders and compares numbers with up to 3 decimal places.
  • GDS:Solves problems which require knowing percentage and decimal equivalents of ½, ¼, ⅕, ⅖, ⅘ and those fractions with a denominator of a multiple of 10 or 25.
Year 6
  • GDS: Uses written division methods in cases where the answer has up to two decimal places.
  • GDS: Solves problems which require answers to be rounded to specified degrees of accuracy.
  • GDS: Recalls and uses equivalences between simple fractions, decimals and percentages, including in different contexts.

Number - multiplication and division

Year 3
  • Recalls and uses multiplication and division facts for the multiplication tables:
    • EXS: Three;
    • EXS: Four; and
    • EXS: Eight.
  • EXS: Writes and calculates mathematical statements for multiplication using the multiplication tables that they know, including for two-digit numbers times one-digit numbers, using mental and progressing to formal written methods
Year 4
  • EXS: Recalls multiplication and division facts for multiplication tables up to 12 x 12.
Year 5
  • WTS: Identifies multiples and factors, including finding all factor pairs of a number, and common factors of two numbers.
  • EXS: Solves problems involving multiplication and division, including using a knowledge of factors and multiples, squares and cubes.
  • GDS: Solves problems involving multiplication and division, including scaling by simple fractions and problems involving simple rates.

Number - number and place value

Year 3
  • EXS: Counts from 0 in multiples of four.
  • EXS: Can work out if a given number is greater or less than 10 or 100
  • EXS: Recognises the place value of each digit in a 3-digit number (hundreds, tens and ones)
Year 4
  • Count in multiples of six, seven, nine, 25 and 1,000
  • EXS: Counts backwards through 0 to include negative numbers.
  • EXS: Orders and compares numbers beyond 1,000.
  • EXS: Rounds any number to the nearest 10, 100 or 1,000.
Year 5
  • EXS: Reads, writes, orders and compares numbers to at least 1,000,000 and determine the value of each digit.
  • EXS: Interprets negative numbers in context, count forwards and backwards with positive and negative whole numbers, including through zero.
Year 6
  • EXS: Rounds any whole number to a required degree of accuracy.
  • WTS: Uses negative numbers in context, and calculate intervals across zero.

Ratio and proportion

Year 6
  • EXS: Solve problems involving the calculation of percentages eg of measures and such as 15% of 360, and the use of percentages for comparison.
  • GDS: Solves problems involving unequal sharing and grouping using knowledge of fractions and multiples.

Statistics

Year 3
  • EXS: Interprets and presents data using bar charts, pictograms and tables
Year 4
  • Solves comparison, sum and difference problems using information presented in bar charts, pictograms, tables and other graphs
Year 5
  • Completes, reads and interprets information in tables, including timetables
Year 6
  • Calculates and interprets the mean as an average

Key Stage 2 Physical Education

National Curriculum England 2014 - NAHT Assessment Framework

Year 3

  • Use running, jumping, throwing and catching in isolation and in combination
  • Develop flexibility, strength, technique, control and balance [for example, through athletics and gymnastics]
  • Perform dances using a range of movement patterns
  • Compare their performances with previous ones and demonstrate improvement to achieve their personal best

Year 4

  • Use running, jumping, throwing and catching in isolation and in combination
  • Develop flexibility, strength, technique, control and balance [for example, through athletics and gymnastics]
  • Perform dances using a range of movement patterns
  • Compare their performances with previous ones and demonstrate improvement to achieve their personal best

Year 5

  • Play competitive games, modified where appropriate [for example, badminton, basketball, cricket, football, hockey, netball, rounders and tennis], and apply basic principles suitable for attacking and defending
  • Perform dances using a range of movement patterns
  • Compare their performances with previous ones and demonstrate improvement to achieve their personal best

Year 6

  • Play competitive games, modified where appropriate [for example, badminton, basketball, cricket, football, hockey, netball, rounders and tennis], and apply basic principles suitable for attacking and defending
  • Perform dances using a range of movement patterns
  • Compare their performances with previous ones and demonstrate improvement to achieve their personal best

Key Stage 2 Reading

National Curriculum England 2014 - NAHT Assessment Framework

Comprehension

Year 3
  • EXS: Develops positive attitudes to reading, and an understanding of what they read, by: Listening to and discussing a wide range of fiction, poetry, plays, non-fiction and reference books or textbooks.
    • EXS: Can use dictionaries to check the meaning of words that they have read (by first letter).
    • EXS: Identifying themes and conventions in a wide range of books.
  • EXS: Understands what they have read independently by: Checking that the text makes sense to them.
    • GDS: Drawing inferences such as inferring characters’ feelings, thoughts and motives from their actions.
    • EXS: Predicting what might happen from details stated and implied.
  • EXS: Retrieves and records information from non-fiction texts.
Year 4
  • EXS: Uses dictionaries to check the meaning of words that have been read (by first and further letters).
  • GDS: Identifies themes and conventions in a wide range of texts.
  • WTS: checks that the text makes sense to the individual, discussing their understanding and explaining the meaning of words in context.
  • GDS: Draws inferences such as inferring characters’ feelings, thoughts and motives from their actions and justifies inferences with evidence.
  • EXS: Predicts what might happen from details stated and implied.
  • EXS: Identifies main ideas drawn from more than one paragraph and summarises these.
  • EXS: Retrieves and record information from non-fiction texts independently.
Year 5
  • EXS: Maintain positive attitudes to reading and an understanding of what they read by continuing to read and discuss an increasingly wide range of fiction, poetry, plays, non-fiction and reference books or textbooks.
  • EXS: Increases familiarity with a wide range of books including myths, legends and traditional stories, modern fiction, fiction from our literary heritage, and books from other culturs and traditions.
    • EXS: Identifying and discussing themes and conventions in and across a wide range of writing.
    • EXS: Making comparisons within and across books, giving reasons for their ideas.
  • EXS: Accurately summarises the main ideas drawn from more than one paragraph, identifying key details that support the main ideas.
  • WTS: Retrieves, records and presents information from non-fiction using skimming and scanning techniques.
  • WTS: Participates in discussions about books that are read to the child and those that can be read independently.
  • WTS: Begin to make inferences about the texts they have read and have an increasing understanding of techniques authors use to engage the reader.
Year 6
  • EXS: Increases familiarity with a wide range of books, including myths, legends and traditional stories, modern fiction, fiction from our literary heritage, and books from other cultures and traditions.
  • WTS: Checks that the book makes sense to the reader, discussing the individual’s understanding and exploring the meaning of words in context.
  • EXS: Summarises the main ideas drawn from more than one paragraph, identifying key details that support the main ideas.
  • EXS: Retrieves, records and presents information from non-fiction.
  • EXS: Participate in discussions about books that are read to them and those they can read for themselves, building on their own and others’ ideas and challenging views courteously.
  • WTS: Provides reasoned justifications for their views about a book.

Word reading

Year 3
  • EXS: Reads 60 or more of the Year 3 and 4 Word List.
Year 4
  • WTS: Apply their growing knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes to understand the meaning of new words they meet.
Year 5
  • EXS: Applies a growing knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes (morphology and etymology), as listed in English appendix 1 of the national curriculum, both to read aloud and to understand the meaning of new words that are met.
Year 6
  • EXS: Applies a growing knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes (morphology and etymology), as listed in English appendix 1 of the national curriculum, both to read aloud and to understand the meaning of new words that they meet.

Key Stage 2 Science

National Curriculum England 2014 - NAHT Assessment Framework

Animals, including humans

Year 3
  • Identify that animals, including humans, need the right types and amount of nutrition, and that they cannot make their own food; they get nutrition from what they eat
  • Identify that humans and some other animals have skeletons and muscles for support, protection and movement
Year 4
  • Describe the simple functions of the basic parts of the digestive system in humans
  • Identify the different types of teeth in humans and their simple functions
  • Construct and interpret a variety of food chains, identifying producers, predators and prey
Year 5
  • Describe the changes as humans develop to old age
Year 6
  • Identify and name the main parts of the human circulatory system, and describe the functions of the heart, blood vessels and blood
  • Recognise the impact of diet, exercise, drugs and lifestyle on the way their bodies function
  • Describe the ways in which nutrients and water are transported within animals, including humans

Earth and space

Year 5
  • Describe the movement of the earth and other planets relative to the sun in the solar system
  • Describe the movement of the moon relative to the earth
  • Describe the sun, earth and moon as approximately spherical bodies
  • Use the idea of the earth’s rotation to explain day and night and the apparent movement of the sun across the sky

Electricity

Year 4
  • Identify common appliances that run on electricity
  • Construct a simple series electrical circuit, identifying and naming its basic parts, including cells, wires, bulbs, switches and buzzers
  • Identify whether or not a lamp will light in a simple series circuit, based on whether or not the lamp is part of a complete loop with a battery
  • Recognise that a switch opens and closes a circuit and associate this with whether or not a lamp lights in a simple series circuit
  • Recognise some common conductors and insulators, and associate metals with being good conductors
Year 6
  • Associate the brightness of a lamp or the volume of a buzzer with the number and voltage of cells used in the circuit
  • Compare and give reasons for variations in how components function, including the brightness of bulbs, the loudness of buzzers and the on/off position of switches
  • Use recognised symbols when representing a simple circuit in a diagram

Evolution and inheritance

Year 6
  • Recognise that living things have changed over time and that fossils provide information about living things that inhabited the earth millions of years ago
  • Recognise that living things produce offspring of the same kind, but normally offspring vary and are not identical to their parents
  • Identify how animals and plants are adapted to suit their environment in different ways and that adaptation may lead to evolution

Forces

Year 5
  • Explain that unsupported objects fall towards the earth because of the force of gravity acting between the earth and the falling object
  • Identify the effects of air resistance, water resistance and friction, that act between moving surfaces
  • Recognise that some mechanisms including levers, pulleys and gears allow a smaller force to have a greater effect

Forces and magnets

Year 3
  • Compare how things move on different surfaces
  • Notice that some forces need contact between 2 objects, but magnetic forces can act at a distance
  • Observe how magnets attract or repel each other and attract some materials and not others
  • Compare and group together a variety of everyday materials on the basis of whether they are attracted to a magnet, and identify some magnetic materials
  • Describe magnets as having 2 poles
  • Predict whether 2 magnets will attract or repel each other, depending on which poles are facing

Light

Year 3
  • Recognise that they need light in order to see things and that dark is the absence of light
  • Notice that light is reflected from surfaces
  • Recognise that light from the sun can be dangerous and that there are ways to protect their eyes
  • Recognise that shadows are formed when the light from a light source is blocked by a solid object
  • Find patterns in the way that the size of shadows change
Year 6
  • Recognise that light appears to travel in straight lines
  • Use the idea that light travels in straight lines to explain that objects are seen because they give out or reflect light into the eye
  • Explain that we see things because light travels from light sources to our eyes or from light sources to objects and then to our eyes
  • Use the idea that light travels in straight lines to explain why shadows have the same shape as the objects that cast them

Living things and their habitats

Year 4
  • Recognise that living things can be grouped in a variety of ways
  • Explore and use classification keys to help group, identify and name a variety of living things in their local and wider environment
  • Recognise that environments can change and that this can sometimes pose dangers to living things
Year 5
  • Describe the differences in the life cycles of a mammal, an amphibian, an insect and a bird
  • Describe the life process of reproduction in some plants and animals
Year 6
  • Describe how living things are classified into broad groups according to common observable characteristics and based on similarities and differences, including micro-organisms, plants and animals
  • Give reasons for classifying plants and animals based on specific characteristics

Plants

Year 3
  • Identify and describe the functions of different parts of flowering plants: roots, stem/trunk, leaves and flowers
  • Explore the requirements of plants for life and growth (air, light, water, nutrients from soil, and room to grow) and how they vary from plant to plant
  • Investigate the way in which water is transported within plants
  • Explore the part that flowers play in the life cycle of flowering plants, including pollination, seed formation and seed dispersal

Properties and changes of materials

Year 5
  • Compare and group together everyday materials on the basis of their properties, including their hardness, solubility, transparency, conductivity (electrical and thermal), and response to magnets
  • Know that some materials will dissolve in liquid to form a solution, and describe how to recover a substance from a solution
  • Use knowledge of solids, liquids and gases to decide how mixtures might be separated, including through filtering, sieving and evaporating
  • Give reasons, based on evidence from comparative and fair tests, for the particular uses of everyday materials, including metals, wood and plastic
  • Demonstrate that dissolving, mixing and changes of state are reversible changes
  • Explain that some changes result in the formation of new materials, and that this kind of change is not usually reversible, including changes associated with burning and the action of acid on bicarbonate of soda

Rocks

Year 3
  • Compare and group together different kinds of rocks on the basis of their appearance and simple physical properties
  • Describe in simple terms how fossils are formed when things that have lived are trapped within rock
  • Recognise that soils are made from rocks and organic matter

Sound

Year 4
  • Identify how sounds are made, associating some of them with something vibrating
  • Recognise that vibrations from sounds travel through a medium to the ear
  • Find patterns between the pitch of a sound and features of the object that produced it
  • Find patterns between the volume of a sound and the strength of the vibrations that produced it
  • Recognise that sounds get fainter as the distance from the sound source increases

States of matter

Year 4
  • Compare and group materials together, according to whether they are solids, liquids or gases
  • Observe that some materials change state when they are heated or cooled, and measure or research the temperature at which this happens in degrees celsius (°C)
  • Identify the part played by evaporation and condensation in the water cycle and associate the rate of evaporation with temperature

Key Stage 2 Writing

National Curriculum England 2014 - NAHT Assessment Framework

Composition

Year 3
  • EXS: Organises their writing into paragraphs.
  • EXS: In narratives, creates settings, characters and plot.
  • EXS: Uses headings and sub-headings to aid presentation (non-fiction).
  • EXS: Checks that each sentence they have written makes sense.
Year 4
  • WTS: Organises paragraphs around a theme.
  • EXS: In narratives, creates settings, characters and plot through detailed development.
  • EXS: Proof-reads for spelling and punctuation errors.
Year 5
  • EXS Identifies the audience for, and purpose of, the writing and selcts the appropriate form.
  • exs@ Selects the appropriate form and uses other similar writing as models for their own.
  • EXS: Describes settings, characters and atmosphere drawing on what they have read.
  • EXS: Uses further organisational and presentational devices to structure text and to guide the reader (eg headings, bullet points, underlining).
  • WTS: Ensures the consistent and correct use of tense throughout a piece of writing.
  • EXS: Proof-reads for spelling and punctuation errors and makes corrections during multiple drafting process.
Year 6
  • EXS: Identifies the audience for, and purpose of, the writing
  • EXS: Selects the appropriate form and uses other similar writing as models for their own.
  • EXS: Uses further organisational and presentational devices to structure text and to guide the reader (eg headings, bullet points, underlining).
  • EXS: Can describe settings, characters and atmosphere.
  • EXS: Ensures the consistent and correct use of tense throughout a piece of writing.
  • EXS: Proof-reads for spelling and punctuation errors and makes corrections during the multiple draft process.

Transcription - Spelling

Year 4
  • EXS: Writes from memory simple sentences, dictated by the teacher, that include words and punctuation taught so far.

Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation

Year 3
  • EXS: Uses the present perfect form of verbs instead of the simple past eg ‘He has gone out to play’ in contrast to ‘He went out to play’
  • EXS; Expresses time, place and cause by using conjunctions e.g. when, before, after, while, so, because.
  • EXS: Some accurate use of inverted commas to punctuate direct speech.
  • EXS: Uses the forms ‘a’ or ‘an’ according to whether the next word begins with a consonant or a vowel eg a rock, an open box
Year 4
  • EXS: Can choose an appropriate pronoun or noun within and across sentences to aid cohesion and avoid repetition.
  • EXS: Uses standard English forms for verb inflections instead of local spoken forms.
  • EXS: Uses inverted commas and other punctuation to indicate direct speech.
Year 5
  • EXS: Indicates degrees of possibility using adverbs (eg perhaps, surely) or modal verbs (eg might, should, will, must).
  • EXS: Uses commas to clarify meaning or avoid ambiguity.
  • EXS: Converts nouns or adjectives into verbs using suffixes (eg -ate; -ise; -ify)
  • EXS: Uses devices to build cohesion within and across a paragraph using adverbials of time, place and number.
Year 6
  • EXS: Can understand and apply the difference between vocabulary typical of informal speech and vocabulary appropriate for formal speech and writing (eg find out - discover; ask for - request; go in - enter).
  • EXS: Uses the passive voice to affect the presentation of information in a sentence (eg ‘I broke the window in the greenhouse’ versus ‘The window in the greenhouse was broken (by me)’.
  • EXS: Uses the colon to introduce a list.
  • EXS: Punctuates bullet points to list information.
  • WTS; Can use layout devices, such as headings, sub-headings, columns, bullets, or tables, to structure text.